Skip to main content

C/C++ Connector

C/C++ developers can use TDengine's client driver and the C/C++ connector, to develop their applications to connect to TDengine clusters for data writing, querying, and other functions. To use the C/C++ connector you must include the TDengine header file taos.h, which lists the function prototypes of the provided APIs. The application also needs to link to the corresponding dynamic libraries on the platform where it is located.

#include <taos.h>

After TDengine server or client installation, taos.h is located at

  • Linux: /usr/local/taos/include
  • Windows: C:\TDengine\include

The dynamic libraries for the TDengine client driver are located in.

  • Linux: /usr/local/taos/driver/libtaos.so
  • Windows: C:\TDengine\taos.dll

Supported platforms

Please refer to list of supported platforms

Supported versions

The version number of the TDengine client driver and the version number of the TDengine server should be same. A lower version of the client driver is compatible with a higher version of the server, if the first three version numbers are the same (i.e., only the fourth version number is different). For e.g. if the client version is x.y.z.1 and the server version is x.y.z.2 the client and server are compatible. But in general we do not recommend using a lower client version with a newer server version. It is also strongly discouraged to use a higher version of the client driver to access a lower version of the TDengine server.

Installation steps

Please refer to the Installation Steps for TDengine client driver installation

Establishing a connection

The basic process of accessing a TDengine cluster using the client driver is to establish a connection, query and write data, close the connection, and clear the resource.

The following is sample code for establishing a connection, which omits the query and writing sections and shows how to establish a connection, close a connection, and clear a resource.

  TAOS *taos = taos_connect("localhost:6030", "root", "taosdata", NULL, 0);
if (taos == NULL) {
printf("failed to connect to server, reason:%s\n", "null taos" /*taos_errstr(taos)*/);
exit(1);
}

/* put your code here for query and writing */

taos_close(taos);
taos_cleanup();

In the above example code, taos_connect() establishes a connection to port 6030 on the host where the client application is located, taos_close() closes the current connection, and taos_cleanup() clears the resources requested and used by the client driver.

note
  • If not specified, when the return value of the API is an integer, 0 means success. All others are error codes representing the reason for failure. When the return value is a pointer, NULL means failure.
  • All error codes and their corresponding causes are described in the taoserror.h file.

Example program

This section shows sample code for standard access methods to TDengine clusters using the client driver.

Synchronous query example

Synchronous query
/*
* Copyright (c) 2019 TAOS Data, Inc. <jhtao@taosdata.com>
*
* This program is free software: you can use, redistribute, and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License, version 3
* or later ("AGPL"), as published by the Free Software Foundation.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
* ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/

// TAOS standard API example. The same syntax as MySQL, but only a subset
// to compile: gcc -o demo demo.c -ltaos

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <taos.h> // TAOS header file

static void queryDB(TAOS *taos, char *command) {
int i;
TAOS_RES *pSql = NULL;
int32_t code = -1;

for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
if (NULL != pSql) {
taos_free_result(pSql);
pSql = NULL;
}

pSql = taos_query(taos, command);
code = taos_errno(pSql);
if (0 == code) {
break;
}
}

if (code != 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Failed to run %s, reason: %s\n", command, taos_errstr(pSql));
taos_free_result(pSql);
taos_close(taos);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

taos_free_result(pSql);
}

void Test(TAOS *taos, char *qstr, int i);

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
char qstr[1024];

// connect to server
if (argc < 2) {
printf("please input server-ip \n");
return 0;
}

TAOS *taos = taos_connect(argv[1], "root", "taosdata", NULL, 0);
if (taos == NULL) {
printf("failed to connect to server, reason:%s\n", "null taos" /*taos_errstr(taos)*/);
exit(1);
}
for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
Test(taos, qstr, i);
}
taos_close(taos);
taos_cleanup();
}
void Test(TAOS *taos, char *qstr, int index) {
printf("==================test at %d\n================================", index);
queryDB(taos, "drop database if exists demo");
queryDB(taos, "create database demo");
TAOS_RES *result;
queryDB(taos, "use demo");

queryDB(taos,
"create table m1 (ts timestamp, ti tinyint, si smallint, i int, bi bigint, f float, d double, b binary(10))");
printf("success to create table\n");

int i = 0;
for (i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
sprintf(qstr, "insert into m1 values (%" PRId64 ", %d, %d, %d, %d, %f, %lf, '%s')",
(uint64_t)(1546300800000 + i * 1000), i, i, i, i * 10000000, i * 1.0, i * 2.0, "hello");
printf("qstr: %s\n", qstr);

// note: how do you wanna do if taos_query returns non-NULL
// if (taos_query(taos, qstr)) {
// printf("insert row: %i, reason:%s\n", i, taos_errstr(taos));
// }
TAOS_RES *result1 = taos_query(taos, qstr);
if (result1 == NULL || taos_errno(result1) != 0) {
printf("failed to insert row, reason:%s\n", taos_errstr(result1));
taos_free_result(result1);
exit(1);
} else {
printf("insert row: %i\n", i);
}
taos_free_result(result1);
}
printf("success to insert rows, total %d rows\n", i);

// query the records
sprintf(qstr, "SELECT * FROM m1");
result = taos_query(taos, qstr);
if (result == NULL || taos_errno(result) != 0) {
printf("failed to select, reason:%s\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(1);
}

TAOS_ROW row;
int rows = 0;
int num_fields = taos_field_count(result);
TAOS_FIELD *fields = taos_fetch_fields(result);

printf("num_fields = %d\n", num_fields);
printf("select * from table, result:\n");
// fetch the records row by row
while ((row = taos_fetch_row(result))) {
char temp[1024] = {0};
rows++;
taos_print_row(temp, row, fields, num_fields);
printf("%s\n", temp);
}

taos_free_result(result);
printf("====demo end====\n\n");
}

view source code

Asynchronous query example

Asynchronous queries
/*
* Copyright (c) 2019 TAOS Data, Inc. <jhtao@taosdata.com>
*
* This program is free software: you can use, redistribute, and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License, version 3
* or later ("AGPL"), as published by the Free Software Foundation.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
* ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/

// TAOS asynchronous API example
// this example opens multiple tables, insert/retrieve multiple tables
// it is used by TAOS internally for one performance testing
// to compiple: gcc -o asyncdemo asyncdemo.c -ltaos

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <taos.h>

int points = 5;
int numOfTables = 3;
int tablesInsertProcessed = 0;
int tablesSelectProcessed = 0;
int64_t st, et;

typedef struct {
int id;
TAOS * taos;
char name[16];
time_t timeStamp;
int value;
int rowsInserted;
int rowsTried;
int rowsRetrieved;
} STable;

void taos_insert_call_back(void *param, TAOS_RES *tres, int code);
void taos_select_call_back(void *param, TAOS_RES *tres, int code);
void taos_error(TAOS *taos);

static void queryDB(TAOS *taos, char *command) {
int i;
TAOS_RES *pSql = NULL;
int32_t code = -1;

for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
if (NULL != pSql) {
taos_free_result(pSql);
pSql = NULL;
}

pSql = taos_query(taos, command);
code = taos_errno(pSql);
if (0 == code) {
break;
}
}

if (code != 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "Failed to run %s, reason: %s\n", command, taos_errstr(pSql));
taos_free_result(pSql);
taos_close(taos);
taos_cleanup();
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

taos_free_result(pSql);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
TAOS * taos;
struct timeval systemTime;
int i;
char sql[1024] = {0};
char prefix[20] = {0};
char db[128] = {0};
STable * tableList;

if (argc != 5) {
printf("usage: %s server-ip dbname rowsPerTable numOfTables\n", argv[0]);
exit(0);
}

// a simple way to parse input parameters
if (argc >= 3) strcpy(db, argv[2]);
if (argc >= 4) points = atoi(argv[3]);
if (argc >= 5) numOfTables = atoi(argv[4]);

size_t size = sizeof(STable) * (size_t)numOfTables;
tableList = (STable *)malloc(size);
memset(tableList, 0, size);

taos = taos_connect(argv[1], "root", "taosdata", NULL, 0);
if (taos == NULL) taos_error(taos);

printf("success to connect to server\n");

sprintf(sql, "drop database if exists %s", db);
queryDB(taos, sql);

sprintf(sql, "create database %s", db);
queryDB(taos, sql);

sprintf(sql, "use %s", db);
queryDB(taos, sql);

strcpy(prefix, "asytbl_");
for (i = 0; i < numOfTables; ++i) {
tableList[i].id = i;
tableList[i].taos = taos;
sprintf(tableList[i].name, "%s%d", prefix, i);
sprintf(sql, "create table %s%d (ts timestamp, volume bigint)", prefix, i);
queryDB(taos, sql);
}

gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
for (i = 0; i < numOfTables; ++i)
tableList[i].timeStamp = (time_t)(systemTime.tv_sec) * 1000 + systemTime.tv_usec / 1000;

printf("success to create tables, press any key to insert\n");
getchar();

printf("start to insert...\n");
gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
st = systemTime.tv_sec * 1000000 + systemTime.tv_usec;

tablesInsertProcessed = 0;
tablesSelectProcessed = 0;

for (i = 0; i < numOfTables; ++i) {
// insert records in asynchronous API
sprintf(sql, "insert into %s values(%ld, 0)", tableList[i].name, 1546300800000 + i);
taos_query_a(taos, sql, taos_insert_call_back, (void *)(tableList + i));
}

printf("once insert finished, presse any key to query\n");
getchar();

while (1) {
if (tablesInsertProcessed < numOfTables) {
printf("wait for process finished\n");
sleep(1);
continue;
}

break;
}

printf("start to query...\n");
gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
st = systemTime.tv_sec * 1000000 + systemTime.tv_usec;

for (i = 0; i < numOfTables; ++i) {
// select records in asynchronous API
sprintf(sql, "select * from %s", tableList[i].name);
taos_query_a(taos, sql, taos_select_call_back, (void *)(tableList + i));
}

printf("\nonce finished, press any key to exit\n");
getchar();

while (1) {
if (tablesSelectProcessed < numOfTables) {
printf("wait for process finished\n");
sleep(1);
continue;
}

break;
}

for (i = 0; i < numOfTables; ++i) {
printf("%s inserted:%d retrieved:%d\n", tableList[i].name, tableList[i].rowsInserted, tableList[i].rowsRetrieved);
}

taos_close(taos);
free(tableList);

printf("==== async demo end====\n");
printf("\n");
return 0;
}

void taos_error(TAOS *con) {
fprintf(stderr, "TDengine error: %s\n", taos_errstr(con));
taos_close(con);
taos_cleanup();
exit(1);
}

void taos_insert_call_back(void *param, TAOS_RES *tres, int code) {
STable * pTable = (STable *)param;
struct timeval systemTime;
char sql[128];

pTable->rowsTried++;

if (code < 0) {
printf("%s insert failed, code:%d, rows:%d\n", pTable->name, code, pTable->rowsTried);
} else if (code == 0) {
printf("%s not inserted\n", pTable->name);
} else {
pTable->rowsInserted++;
}

if (pTable->rowsTried < points) {
// for this demo, insert another record
sprintf(sql, "insert into %s values(%ld, %d)", pTable->name, 1546300800000 + pTable->rowsTried * 1000,
pTable->rowsTried);
taos_query_a(pTable->taos, sql, taos_insert_call_back, (void *)pTable);
} else {
printf("%d rows data are inserted into %s\n", points, pTable->name);
tablesInsertProcessed++;
if (tablesInsertProcessed >= numOfTables) {
gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
et = systemTime.tv_sec * 1000000 + systemTime.tv_usec;
printf("%lld mseconds to insert %d data points\n", (et - st) / 1000, points * numOfTables);
}
}

taos_free_result(tres);
}

void taos_retrieve_call_back(void *param, TAOS_RES *tres, int numOfRows) {
STable * pTable = (STable *)param;
struct timeval systemTime;

if (numOfRows > 0) {
for (int i = 0; i < numOfRows; ++i) {
// synchronous API to retrieve a row from batch of records
/*TAOS_ROW row = */ (void)taos_fetch_row(tres);
// process row
}

pTable->rowsRetrieved += numOfRows;

// retrieve next batch of rows
taos_fetch_rows_a(tres, taos_retrieve_call_back, pTable);

} else {
if (numOfRows < 0) printf("%s retrieve failed, code:%d\n", pTable->name, numOfRows);

// taos_free_result(tres);
printf("%d rows data retrieved from %s\n", pTable->rowsRetrieved, pTable->name);

tablesSelectProcessed++;
if (tablesSelectProcessed >= numOfTables) {
gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
et = systemTime.tv_sec * 1000000 + systemTime.tv_usec;
printf("%lld mseconds to query %d data rows\n", (et - st) / 1000, points * numOfTables);
}

taos_free_result(tres);
}
}

void taos_select_call_back(void *param, TAOS_RES *tres, int code) {
STable *pTable = (STable *)param;

if (code == 0 && tres) {
// asynchronous API to fetch a batch of records
taos_fetch_rows_a(tres, taos_retrieve_call_back, pTable);
} else {
printf("%s select failed, code:%d\n", pTable->name, code);
taos_free_result(tres);
taos_cleanup();
exit(1);
}
}

view source code

Parameter binding example

Parameter Binding
// TAOS standard API example. The same syntax as MySQL, but only a subet
// to compile: gcc -o prepare prepare.c -ltaos

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <taos.h>
#include <unistd.h>

void taosMsleep(int mseconds);

void verify_prepare(TAOS* taos) {
TAOS_RES* result = taos_query(taos, "drop database if exists test;");
taos_free_result(result);

usleep(100000);
result = taos_query(taos, "create database test;");

int code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create database, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

taos_free_result(result);

usleep(100000);
taos_select_db(taos, "test");

// create table
const char* sql =
"create table m1 (ts timestamp, b bool, v1 tinyint, v2 smallint, v4 int, v8 bigint, f4 float, f8 double, bin "
"binary(40), blob nchar(10), u1 tinyint unsigned, u2 smallint unsigned, u4 int unsigned, u8 bigint unsigned)";
result = taos_query(taos, sql);
code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create table, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

// insert 10 records
struct {
int64_t ts;
int8_t b;
int8_t v1;
int16_t v2;
int32_t v4;
int64_t v8;
float f4;
double f8;
char bin[40];
char blob[80];
uint8_t u1;
uint16_t u2;
uint32_t u4;
uint64_t u8;
} v = {0};

TAOS_STMT* stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
TAOS_BIND params[14];
params[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TIMESTAMP;
params[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v.ts);
params[0].buffer = &v.ts;
params[0].length = &params[0].buffer_length;
params[0].is_null = NULL;

params[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
params[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v.b);
params[1].buffer = &v.b;
params[1].length = &params[1].buffer_length;
params[1].is_null = NULL;

params[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
params[2].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v1);
params[2].buffer = &v.v1;
params[2].length = &params[2].buffer_length;
params[2].is_null = NULL;

params[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
params[3].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v2);
params[3].buffer = &v.v2;
params[3].length = &params[3].buffer_length;
params[3].is_null = NULL;

params[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
params[4].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v4);
params[4].buffer = &v.v4;
params[4].length = &params[4].buffer_length;
params[4].is_null = NULL;

params[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
params[5].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v8);
params[5].buffer = &v.v8;
params[5].length = &params[5].buffer_length;
params[5].is_null = NULL;

params[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
params[6].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f4);
params[6].buffer = &v.f4;
params[6].length = &params[6].buffer_length;
params[6].is_null = NULL;

params[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
params[7].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f8);
params[7].buffer = &v.f8;
params[7].length = &params[7].buffer_length;
params[7].is_null = NULL;

params[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
params[8].buffer_length = sizeof(v.bin);
params[8].buffer = v.bin;
params[8].length = &params[8].buffer_length;
params[8].is_null = NULL;

strcpy(v.blob, "一二三四五六七八九十");
params[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
params[9].buffer_length = strlen(v.blob);
params[9].buffer = v.blob;
params[9].length = &params[9].buffer_length;
params[9].is_null = NULL;

params[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
params[10].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u1);
params[10].buffer = &v.u1;
params[10].length = &params[10].buffer_length;
params[10].is_null = NULL;

params[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
params[11].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u2);
params[11].buffer = &v.u2;
params[11].length = &params[11].buffer_length;
params[11].is_null = NULL;

params[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
params[12].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u4);
params[12].buffer = &v.u4;
params[12].length = &params[12].buffer_length;
params[12].is_null = NULL;

params[13].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
params[13].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u8);
params[13].buffer = &v.u8;
params[13].length = &params[13].buffer_length;
params[13].is_null = NULL;

int is_null = 1;

sql = "insert into m1 values(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?)";
code = taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, sql, 0);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_prepare. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
v.ts = 1591060628000;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
v.ts += 1;
for (int j = 1; j < 10; ++j) {
params[j].is_null = ((i == j) ? &is_null : 0);
}
v.b = (int8_t)i % 2;
v.v1 = (int8_t)i;
v.v2 = (int16_t)(i * 2);
v.v4 = (int32_t)(i * 4);
v.v8 = (int64_t)(i * 8);
v.f4 = (float)(i * 40);
v.f8 = (double)(i * 80);
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(v.bin); ++j) {
v.bin[j] = (char)(i + '0');
}
v.u1 = (uint8_t)i;
v.u2 = (uint16_t)(i * 2);
v.u4 = (uint32_t)(i * 4);
v.u8 = (uint64_t)(i * 8);

taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, params);
taos_stmt_add_batch(stmt);
}
if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute insert statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

int affectedRows = taos_stmt_affected_rows(stmt);
printf("sucessfully inserted %d rows\n", affectedRows);

taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// query the records
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, "SELECT * FROM m1 WHERE v1 > ? AND v2 < ?", 0);
v.v1 = 5;
v.v2 = 15;
taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, params + 2);
if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute select statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

result = taos_stmt_use_result(stmt);

TAOS_ROW row;
int rows = 0;
int num_fields = taos_num_fields(result);
TAOS_FIELD* fields = taos_fetch_fields(result);

// fetch the records row by row
while ((row = taos_fetch_row(result))) {
char temp[256] = {0};
rows++;
taos_print_row(temp, row, fields, num_fields);
printf("%s\n", temp);
}

taos_free_result(result);
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
}

void verify_prepare2(TAOS* taos) {
TAOS_RES* result = taos_query(taos, "drop database if exists test;");
taos_free_result(result);
usleep(100000);
result = taos_query(taos, "create database test;");

int code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create database, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

usleep(100000);
taos_select_db(taos, "test");

// create table
const char* sql =
"create table m1 (ts timestamp, b bool, v1 tinyint, v2 smallint, v4 int, v8 bigint, f4 float, f8 double, bin "
"binary(40), blob nchar(10), u1 tinyint unsigned, u2 smallint unsigned, u4 int unsigned, u8 bigint unsigned)";
result = taos_query(taos, sql);
code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create table, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

// insert 10 records
struct {
int64_t ts;
int8_t b;
int8_t v1;
int16_t v2;
int32_t v4;
int64_t v8;
float f4;
double f8;
char bin[40];
char blob[80];
uint8_t u1;
uint16_t u2;
uint32_t u4;
uint64_t u8;
} v = {0};

TAOS_STMT* stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
TAOS_BIND params[14];
params[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TIMESTAMP;
params[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v.ts);
params[0].buffer = &v.ts;
params[0].length = &params[0].buffer_length;
params[0].is_null = NULL;

params[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
params[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v.b);
params[1].buffer = &v.b;
params[1].length = &params[1].buffer_length;
params[1].is_null = NULL;

params[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
params[2].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v1);
params[2].buffer = &v.v1;
params[2].length = &params[2].buffer_length;
params[2].is_null = NULL;

params[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
params[3].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v2);
params[3].buffer = &v.v2;
params[3].length = &params[3].buffer_length;
params[3].is_null = NULL;

params[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
params[4].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v4);
params[4].buffer = &v.v4;
params[4].length = &params[4].buffer_length;
params[4].is_null = NULL;

params[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
params[5].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v8);
params[5].buffer = &v.v8;
params[5].length = &params[5].buffer_length;
params[5].is_null = NULL;

params[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
params[6].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f4);
params[6].buffer = &v.f4;
params[6].length = &params[6].buffer_length;
params[6].is_null = NULL;

params[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
params[7].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f8);
params[7].buffer = &v.f8;
params[7].length = &params[7].buffer_length;
params[7].is_null = NULL;

params[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
params[8].buffer_length = sizeof(v.bin);
params[8].buffer = v.bin;
params[8].length = &params[8].buffer_length;
params[8].is_null = NULL;

strcpy(v.blob, "一二三四五六七八九十");
params[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
params[9].buffer_length = strlen(v.blob);
params[9].buffer = v.blob;
params[9].length = &params[9].buffer_length;
params[9].is_null = NULL;

params[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
params[10].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u1);
params[10].buffer = &v.u1;
params[10].length = &params[10].buffer_length;
params[10].is_null = NULL;

params[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
params[11].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u2);
params[11].buffer = &v.u2;
params[11].length = &params[11].buffer_length;
params[11].is_null = NULL;

params[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
params[12].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u4);
params[12].buffer = &v.u4;
params[12].length = &params[12].buffer_length;
params[12].is_null = NULL;

params[13].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
params[13].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u8);
params[13].buffer = &v.u8;
params[13].length = &params[13].buffer_length;
params[13].is_null = NULL;

sql = "insert into ? values(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?)";
code = taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, sql, 0);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_prepare. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

code = taos_stmt_set_tbname(stmt, "m1");
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_prepare. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

int is_null = 1;

v.ts = 1591060628000;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
v.ts += 1;
for (int j = 1; j < 10; ++j) {
params[j].is_null = ((i == j) ? &is_null : 0);
}
v.b = (int8_t)i % 2;
v.v1 = (int8_t)i;
v.v2 = (int16_t)(i * 2);
v.v4 = (int32_t)(i * 4);
v.v8 = (int64_t)(i * 8);
v.f4 = (float)(i * 40);
v.f8 = (double)(i * 80);
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(v.bin); ++j) {
v.bin[j] = (char)(i + '0');
}
v.u1 = (uint8_t)i;
v.u2 = (uint16_t)(i * 2);
v.u4 = (uint32_t)(i * 4);
v.u8 = (uint64_t)(i * 8);

taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, params);
taos_stmt_add_batch(stmt);
}

if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute insert statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

int affectedRows = taos_stmt_affected_rows(stmt);
printf("sucessfully inserted %d rows\n", affectedRows);

taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// query the records
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, "SELECT * FROM m1 WHERE v1 > ? AND v2 < ?", 0);
TAOS_BIND qparams[2];

int8_t v1 = 5;
int16_t v2 = 15;
qparams[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
qparams[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v1);
qparams[0].buffer = &v1;
qparams[0].length = &qparams[0].buffer_length;
qparams[0].is_null = NULL;

qparams[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
qparams[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v2);
qparams[1].buffer = &v2;
qparams[1].length = &qparams[1].buffer_length;
qparams[1].is_null = NULL;

taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, qparams);
if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute select statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

result = taos_stmt_use_result(stmt);

TAOS_ROW row;
int rows = 0;
int num_fields = taos_num_fields(result);
TAOS_FIELD* fields = taos_fetch_fields(result);

// fetch the records row by row
while ((row = taos_fetch_row(result))) {
char temp[256] = {0};
rows++;
taos_print_row(temp, row, fields, num_fields);
printf("%s\n", temp);
}

taos_free_result(result);
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
}

void verify_prepare3(TAOS* taos) {
TAOS_RES* result = taos_query(taos, "drop database if exists test;");
taos_free_result(result);
usleep(100000);
result = taos_query(taos, "create database test;");

int code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create database, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

usleep(100000);
taos_select_db(taos, "test");

// create table
const char* sql =
"create stable st1 (ts timestamp, b bool, v1 tinyint, v2 smallint, v4 int, v8 bigint, f4 float, f8 double, bin "
"binary(40), blob nchar(10), u1 tinyint unsigned, u2 smallint unsigned, u4 int unsigned, u8 bigint unsigned) "
"tags "
"(b_tag bool, v1_tag tinyint, v2_tag smallint, v4_tag int, v8_tag bigint, f4_tag float, f8_tag double, bin_tag "
"binary(40), blob_tag nchar(10), u1_tag tinyint unsigned, u2_tag smallint unsigned, u4_tag int unsigned, u8_tag "
"bigint "
"unsigned)";
result = taos_query(taos, sql);
code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create table, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

TAOS_BIND tags[13];

struct {
int8_t b;
int8_t v1;
int16_t v2;
int32_t v4;
int64_t v8;
float f4;
double f8;
char bin[40];
char blob[80];
uint8_t u1;
uint16_t u2;
uint32_t u4;
uint64_t u8;
} id = {0};

id.b = (int8_t)1;
id.v1 = (int8_t)1;
id.v2 = (int16_t)2;
id.v4 = (int32_t)4;
id.v8 = (int64_t)8;
id.f4 = (float)40;
id.f8 = (double)80;
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(id.bin); ++j) {
id.bin[j] = (char)('1' + '0');
}
strcpy(id.blob, "一二三四五六七八九十");
id.u1 = (uint8_t)1;
id.u2 = (uint16_t)2;
id.u4 = (uint32_t)4;
id.u8 = (uint64_t)8;

tags[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
tags[0].buffer_length = sizeof(id.b);
tags[0].buffer = &id.b;
tags[0].length = &tags[0].buffer_length;
tags[0].is_null = NULL;

tags[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
tags[1].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v1);
tags[1].buffer = &id.v1;
tags[1].length = &tags[1].buffer_length;
tags[1].is_null = NULL;

tags[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
tags[2].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v2);
tags[2].buffer = &id.v2;
tags[2].length = &tags[2].buffer_length;
tags[2].is_null = NULL;

tags[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
tags[3].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v4);
tags[3].buffer = &id.v4;
tags[3].length = &tags[3].buffer_length;
tags[3].is_null = NULL;

tags[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
tags[4].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v8);
tags[4].buffer = &id.v8;
tags[4].length = &tags[4].buffer_length;
tags[4].is_null = NULL;

tags[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
tags[5].buffer_length = sizeof(id.f4);
tags[5].buffer = &id.f4;
tags[5].length = &tags[5].buffer_length;
tags[5].is_null = NULL;

tags[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
tags[6].buffer_length = sizeof(id.f8);
tags[6].buffer = &id.f8;
tags[6].length = &tags[6].buffer_length;
tags[6].is_null = NULL;

tags[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
tags[7].buffer_length = sizeof(id.bin);
tags[7].buffer = &id.bin;
tags[7].length = &tags[7].buffer_length;
tags[7].is_null = NULL;

tags[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
tags[8].buffer_length = strlen(id.blob);
tags[8].buffer = &id.blob;
tags[8].length = &tags[8].buffer_length;
tags[8].is_null = NULL;

tags[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
tags[9].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u1);
tags[9].buffer = &id.u1;
tags[9].length = &tags[9].buffer_length;
tags[9].is_null = NULL;

tags[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
tags[10].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u2);
tags[10].buffer = &id.u2;
tags[10].length = &tags[10].buffer_length;
tags[10].is_null = NULL;

tags[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
tags[11].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u4);
tags[11].buffer = &id.u4;
tags[11].length = &tags[11].buffer_length;
tags[11].is_null = NULL;

tags[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
tags[12].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u8);
tags[12].buffer = &id.u8;
tags[12].length = &tags[12].buffer_length;
tags[12].is_null = NULL;
// insert 10 records
struct {
int64_t ts[10];
int8_t b[10];
int8_t v1[10];
int16_t v2[10];
int32_t v4[10];
int64_t v8[10];
float f4[10];
double f8[10];
char bin[10][40];
char blob[10][80];
uint8_t u1[10];
uint16_t u2[10];
uint32_t u4[10];
uint64_t u8[10];
} v;

int32_t* t8_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t16_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t32_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t64_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* float_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* double_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* bin_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* blob_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u8_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u16_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u32_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u64_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);

TAOS_STMT* stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
TAOS_MULTI_BIND params[14];
char is_null[10] = {0};

params[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TIMESTAMP;
params[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v.ts[0]);
params[0].buffer = v.ts;
params[0].length = t64_len;
params[0].is_null = is_null;
params[0].num = 10;

params[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
params[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v.b[0]);
params[1].buffer = v.b;
params[1].length = t8_len;
params[1].is_null = is_null;
params[1].num = 10;

params[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
params[2].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v1[0]);
params[2].buffer = v.v1;
params[2].length = t8_len;
params[2].is_null = is_null;
params[2].num = 10;

params[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
params[3].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v2[0]);
params[3].buffer = v.v2;
params[3].length = t16_len;
params[3].is_null = is_null;
params[3].num = 10;

params[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
params[4].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v4[0]);
params[4].buffer = v.v4;
params[4].length = t32_len;
params[4].is_null = is_null;
params[4].num = 10;

params[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
params[5].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v8[0]);
params[5].buffer = v.v8;
params[5].length = t64_len;
params[5].is_null = is_null;
params[5].num = 10;

params[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
params[6].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f4[0]);
params[6].buffer = v.f4;
params[6].length = float_len;
params[6].is_null = is_null;
params[6].num = 10;

params[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
params[7].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f8[0]);
params[7].buffer = v.f8;
params[7].length = double_len;
params[7].is_null = is_null;
params[7].num = 10;

params[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
params[8].buffer_length = sizeof(v.bin[0]);
params[8].buffer = v.bin;
params[8].length = bin_len;
params[8].is_null = is_null;
params[8].num = 10;

params[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
params[9].buffer_length = sizeof(v.blob[0]);
params[9].buffer = v.blob;
params[9].length = blob_len;
params[9].is_null = is_null;
params[9].num = 10;

params[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
params[10].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u1[0]);
params[10].buffer = v.u1;
params[10].length = u8_len;
params[10].is_null = is_null;
params[10].num = 10;

params[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
params[11].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u2[0]);
params[11].buffer = v.u2;
params[11].length = u16_len;
params[11].is_null = is_null;
params[11].num = 10;

params[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
params[12].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u4[0]);
params[12].buffer = v.u4;
params[12].length = u32_len;
params[12].is_null = is_null;
params[12].num = 10;

params[13].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
params[13].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u8[0]);
params[13].buffer = v.u8;
params[13].length = u64_len;
params[13].is_null = is_null;
params[13].num = 10;

sql = "insert into ? using st1 tags(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?) values(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?)";
code = taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, sql, 0);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_prepare. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

code = taos_stmt_set_tbname_tags(stmt, "m1", tags);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_set_tbname_tags. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

int64_t ts = 1591060628000;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
v.ts[i] = ts++;
is_null[i] = 0;

v.b[i] = (int8_t)i % 2;
v.v1[i] = (int8_t)i;
v.v2[i] = (int16_t)(i * 2);
v.v4[i] = (int32_t)(i * 4);
v.v8[i] = (int64_t)(i * 8);
v.f4[i] = (float)(i * 40);
v.f8[i] = (double)(i * 80);
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(v.bin[0]); ++j) {
v.bin[i][j] = (char)(i + '0');
}
strcpy(v.blob[i], "一二三四五六七八九十");
v.u1[i] = (uint8_t)i;
v.u2[i] = (uint16_t)(i * 2);
v.u4[i] = (uint32_t)(i * 4);
v.u8[i] = (uint64_t)(i * 8);

t8_len[i] = sizeof(int8_t);
t16_len[i] = sizeof(int16_t);
t32_len[i] = sizeof(int32_t);
t64_len[i] = sizeof(int64_t);
float_len[i] = sizeof(float);
double_len[i] = sizeof(double);
bin_len[i] = sizeof(v.bin[0]);
blob_len[i] = (int32_t)strlen(v.blob[i]);
u8_len[i] = sizeof(uint8_t);
u16_len[i] = sizeof(uint16_t);
u32_len[i] = sizeof(uint32_t);
u64_len[i] = sizeof(uint64_t);
}

taos_stmt_bind_param_batch(stmt, params);
taos_stmt_add_batch(stmt);

if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute insert statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

int affectedRows = taos_stmt_affected_rows(stmt);
printf("successfully inserted %d rows\n", affectedRows);

taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// query the records
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, "SELECT * FROM m1 WHERE v1 > ? AND v2 < ?", 0);

TAOS_BIND qparams[2];

int8_t v1 = 5;
int16_t v2 = 15;
qparams[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
qparams[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v1);
qparams[0].buffer = &v1;
qparams[0].length = &qparams[0].buffer_length;
qparams[0].is_null = NULL;

qparams[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
qparams[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v2);
qparams[1].buffer = &v2;
qparams[1].length = &qparams[1].buffer_length;
qparams[1].is_null = NULL;

taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, qparams);
if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute select statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

result = taos_stmt_use_result(stmt);

TAOS_ROW row;
int rows = 0;
int num_fields = taos_num_fields(result);
TAOS_FIELD* fields = taos_fetch_fields(result);

// fetch the records row by row
while ((row = taos_fetch_row(result))) {
char temp[256] = {0};
rows++;
taos_print_row(temp, row, fields, num_fields);
printf("%s\n", temp);
}

taos_free_result(result);
taos_stmt_close(stmt);

free(t8_len);
free(t16_len);
free(t32_len);
free(t64_len);
free(float_len);
free(double_len);
free(bin_len);
free(blob_len);
free(u8_len);
free(u16_len);
free(u32_len);
free(u64_len);

}

/**
* @brief Verify the upper/lower case of tableName for create(by setTableName)/query/show/describe/drop.
* https://jira.taosdata.com:18080/browse/TS-904
* https://jira.taosdata.com:18090/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=129140555
* @param taos
*/
void verify_prepare4(TAOS* taos) {
printf("Verify the upper/lower case of tableName for create(by setTableName)/query/show/describe/drop etc.\n");

TAOS_RES* result = taos_query(taos, "drop database if exists test;");
taos_free_result(result);
usleep(100000);
result = taos_query(taos, "create database test;");

int code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create database, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

usleep(100000);
taos_select_db(taos, "test");

// create table
const char* sql =
"create stable st1 (ts timestamp, b bool, v1 tinyint, v2 smallint, v4 int, v8 bigint, f4 float, f8 double, bin "
"binary(40), blob nchar(10), u1 tinyint unsigned, u2 smallint unsigned, u4 int unsigned, u8 bigint unsigned) "
"tags "
"(b_tag bool, v1_tag tinyint, v2_tag smallint, v4_tag int, v8_tag bigint, f4_tag float, f8_tag double, bin_tag "
"binary(40), blob_tag nchar(10), u1_tag tinyint unsigned, u2_tag smallint unsigned, u4_tag int unsigned, u8_tag "
"bigint "
"unsigned)";
result = taos_query(taos, sql);
code = taos_errno(result);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to create table, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(result));
taos_free_result(result);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_free_result(result);

TAOS_BIND tags[13];

struct {
int8_t b;
int8_t v1;
int16_t v2;
int32_t v4;
int64_t v8;
float f4;
double f8;
char bin[40];
char blob[80];
uint8_t u1;
uint16_t u2;
uint32_t u4;
uint64_t u8;
} id = {0};

id.b = (int8_t)1;
id.v1 = (int8_t)1;
id.v2 = (int16_t)2;
id.v4 = (int32_t)4;
id.v8 = (int64_t)8;
id.f4 = (float)40;
id.f8 = (double)80;
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(id.bin); ++j) {
id.bin[j] = (char)('1' + '0');
}
strcpy(id.blob, "一二三四五六七八九十");
id.u1 = (uint8_t)1;
id.u2 = (uint16_t)2;
id.u4 = (uint32_t)4;
id.u8 = (uint64_t)8;

tags[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
tags[0].buffer_length = sizeof(id.b);
tags[0].buffer = &id.b;
tags[0].length = &tags[0].buffer_length;
tags[0].is_null = NULL;

tags[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
tags[1].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v1);
tags[1].buffer = &id.v1;
tags[1].length = &tags[1].buffer_length;
tags[1].is_null = NULL;

tags[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
tags[2].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v2);
tags[2].buffer = &id.v2;
tags[2].length = &tags[2].buffer_length;
tags[2].is_null = NULL;

tags[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
tags[3].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v4);
tags[3].buffer = &id.v4;
tags[3].length = &tags[3].buffer_length;
tags[3].is_null = NULL;

tags[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
tags[4].buffer_length = sizeof(id.v8);
tags[4].buffer = &id.v8;
tags[4].length = &tags[4].buffer_length;
tags[4].is_null = NULL;

tags[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
tags[5].buffer_length = sizeof(id.f4);
tags[5].buffer = &id.f4;
tags[5].length = &tags[5].buffer_length;
tags[5].is_null = NULL;

tags[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
tags[6].buffer_length = sizeof(id.f8);
tags[6].buffer = &id.f8;
tags[6].length = &tags[6].buffer_length;
tags[6].is_null = NULL;

tags[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
tags[7].buffer_length = sizeof(id.bin);
tags[7].buffer = &id.bin;
tags[7].length = &tags[7].buffer_length;
tags[7].is_null = NULL;

tags[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
tags[8].buffer_length = strlen(id.blob);
tags[8].buffer = &id.blob;
tags[8].length = &tags[8].buffer_length;
tags[8].is_null = NULL;

tags[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
tags[9].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u1);
tags[9].buffer = &id.u1;
tags[9].length = &tags[9].buffer_length;
tags[9].is_null = NULL;

tags[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
tags[10].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u2);
tags[10].buffer = &id.u2;
tags[10].length = &tags[10].buffer_length;
tags[10].is_null = NULL;

tags[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
tags[11].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u4);
tags[11].buffer = &id.u4;
tags[11].length = &tags[11].buffer_length;
tags[11].is_null = NULL;

tags[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
tags[12].buffer_length = sizeof(id.u8);
tags[12].buffer = &id.u8;
tags[12].length = &tags[12].buffer_length;
tags[12].is_null = NULL;
// insert 10 records
struct {
int64_t ts[10];
int8_t b[10];
int8_t v1[10];
int16_t v2[10];
int32_t v4[10];
int64_t v8[10];
float f4[10];
double f8[10];
char bin[10][40];
char blob[10][80];
uint8_t u1[10];
uint16_t u2[10];
uint32_t u4[10];
uint64_t u8[10];
} v;

int32_t* t8_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t16_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t32_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* t64_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* float_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* double_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* bin_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* blob_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u8_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u16_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u32_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);
int32_t* u64_len = malloc(sizeof(int32_t) * 10);

TAOS_MULTI_BIND params[14];
char is_null[10] = {0};
params[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TIMESTAMP;
params[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v.ts[0]);
params[0].buffer = v.ts;
params[0].length = t64_len;
params[0].is_null = is_null;
params[0].num = 10;

params[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BOOL;
params[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v.b[0]);
params[1].buffer = v.b;
params[1].length = t8_len;
params[1].is_null = is_null;
params[1].num = 10;

params[2].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
params[2].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v1[0]);
params[2].buffer = v.v1;
params[2].length = t8_len;
params[2].is_null = is_null;
params[2].num = 10;

params[3].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
params[3].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v2[0]);
params[3].buffer = v.v2;
params[3].length = t16_len;
params[3].is_null = is_null;
params[3].num = 10;

params[4].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_INT;
params[4].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v4[0]);
params[4].buffer = v.v4;
params[4].length = t32_len;
params[4].is_null = is_null;
params[4].num = 10;

params[5].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BIGINT;
params[5].buffer_length = sizeof(v.v8[0]);
params[5].buffer = v.v8;
params[5].length = t64_len;
params[5].is_null = is_null;
params[5].num = 10;

params[6].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_FLOAT;
params[6].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f4[0]);
params[6].buffer = v.f4;
params[6].length = float_len;
params[6].is_null = is_null;
params[6].num = 10;

params[7].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_DOUBLE;
params[7].buffer_length = sizeof(v.f8[0]);
params[7].buffer = v.f8;
params[7].length = double_len;
params[7].is_null = is_null;
params[7].num = 10;

params[8].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_BINARY;
params[8].buffer_length = sizeof(v.bin[0]);
params[8].buffer = v.bin;
params[8].length = bin_len;
params[8].is_null = is_null;
params[8].num = 10;

params[9].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_NCHAR;
params[9].buffer_length = sizeof(v.blob[0]);
params[9].buffer = v.blob;
params[9].length = blob_len;
params[9].is_null = is_null;
params[9].num = 10;

params[10].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UTINYINT;
params[10].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u1[0]);
params[10].buffer = v.u1;
params[10].length = u8_len;
params[10].is_null = is_null;
params[10].num = 10;

params[11].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_USMALLINT;
params[11].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u2[0]);
params[11].buffer = v.u2;
params[11].length = u16_len;
params[11].is_null = is_null;
params[11].num = 10;

params[12].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UINT;
params[12].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u4[0]);
params[12].buffer = v.u4;
params[12].length = u32_len;
params[12].is_null = is_null;
params[12].num = 10;

params[13].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_UBIGINT;
params[13].buffer_length = sizeof(v.u8[0]);
params[13].buffer = v.u8;
params[13].length = u64_len;
params[13].is_null = is_null;
params[13].num = 10;

// verify table names for upper/lower case
#define VERIFY_CNT 5

typedef struct {
char setTbName[20];
char showName[20];
char describeName[20];
char queryName[20];
char dropName[20];
} STbNames;

/**
* @brief
* 0 - success expected
* NonZero - fail expected
*/
typedef struct {
int32_t setTbName;
int32_t showName;
int32_t describeName;
int32_t queryName;
int32_t dropName;
} STbNamesResult;

STbNames tbName[VERIFY_CNT] = {0};
STbNamesResult tbNameResult[VERIFY_CNT] = {0};

STbNames* pTbName = NULL;
STbNamesResult* pTbNameResult = NULL;

pTbName = &tbName[0];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[0];
strcpy(pTbName->setTbName, "Mn1");
strcpy(pTbName->showName, "mn1");
strcpy(pTbName->describeName, "mn1");
strcpy(pTbName->queryName, "mn1");
strcpy(pTbName->dropName, "mn1");

pTbName = &tbName[1];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[1];
strcpy(pTbName->setTbName, "'Mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->showName, "'mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->describeName, "'mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->queryName, "'mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->dropName, "'mn1'");

pTbName = &tbName[2];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[2];
strcpy(pTbName->setTbName, "\"Mn1\"");
strcpy(pTbName->showName, "\"mn1\"");
strcpy(pTbName->describeName, "\"mn1\"");
strcpy(pTbName->queryName, "\"mn1\"");
strcpy(pTbName->dropName, "\"mn1\"");

pTbName = &tbName[3];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[3];
strcpy(pTbName->setTbName, "\"Mn1\"");
strcpy(pTbName->showName, "'mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->describeName, "'mn1'");
strcpy(pTbName->queryName, "mn1");
strcpy(pTbName->dropName, "\"mn1\"");

pTbName = &tbName[4];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[4];
strcpy(pTbName->setTbName, "`Mn1`");
strcpy(pTbName->showName, "Mn1"); // TODO support uniform of ``
strcpy(pTbName->describeName, "`Mn1`");
strcpy(pTbName->queryName, "`Mn1`");
strcpy(pTbName->dropName, "`Mn1`");

TAOS_STMT* stmt = NULL;

for (int n = 0; n < VERIFY_CNT; ++n) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] ===================================\033[0m\n", n);
pTbName = &tbName[n];
pTbNameResult = &tbNameResult[n];
char tmpStr[256] = {0};

// set table name
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
if (!stmt) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute taos_stmt_init. error:%s\033[0m\n", n);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

sql = "insert into ? using st1 tags(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?) values(?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?)";
code = taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, sql, 0);
if (code != 0) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to execute taos_stmt_prepare. error:%s\033[0m\n", taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

printf("[%d] taos_stmt_set_tbname_tags, tbname=%s\n", n, pTbName->setTbName);
code = taos_stmt_set_tbname_tags(stmt, pTbName->setTbName, tags);
if ((!pTbNameResult->setTbName && (0 != code)) || (pTbNameResult->setTbName && (0 == code))) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute taos_stmt_set_tbname_tags. error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

if (code == 0) {
int64_t ts = 1591060628000 + 1000 * n;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
v.ts[i] = ts++;
is_null[i] = 0;

v.b[i] = (int8_t)i % 2;
v.v1[i] = (int8_t)i;
v.v2[i] = (int16_t)(i * 2);
v.v4[i] = (int32_t)(i * 4);
v.v8[i] = (int64_t)(i * 8);
v.f4[i] = (float)(i * 40);
v.f8[i] = (double)(i * 80);
for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(v.bin[0]); ++j) {
v.bin[i][j] = (char)(i + '0');
}
strcpy(v.blob[i], "一二三四五六七八九十");
v.u1[i] = (uint8_t)i;
v.u2[i] = (uint16_t)(i * 2);
v.u4[i] = (uint32_t)(i * 4);
v.u8[i] = (uint64_t)(i * 8);

t8_len[i] = sizeof(int8_t);
t16_len[i] = sizeof(int16_t);
t32_len[i] = sizeof(int32_t);
t64_len[i] = sizeof(int64_t);
float_len[i] = sizeof(float);
double_len[i] = sizeof(double);
bin_len[i] = sizeof(v.bin[0]);
blob_len[i] = (int32_t)strlen(v.blob[i]);
u8_len[i] = sizeof(uint8_t);
u16_len[i] = sizeof(uint16_t);
u32_len[i] = sizeof(uint32_t);
u64_len[i] = sizeof(uint64_t);
}

taos_stmt_bind_param_batch(stmt, params);
taos_stmt_add_batch(stmt);

if (taos_stmt_execute(stmt) != 0) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute insert statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
}
taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// show the table
printf("[%d] show tables, tbName = %s\n", n, pTbName->showName);
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
sprintf(tmpStr, "show tables like %s", pTbName->showName);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, tmpStr, 0);
code = taos_stmt_execute(stmt);
if ((!pTbNameResult->showName && (0 != code)) || (pTbNameResult->showName && (0 == code))) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute show tables like. error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// describe the table
printf("[%d] describe tables, tbName = %s\n", n, pTbName->describeName);
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
sprintf(tmpStr, "describe %s", pTbName->describeName);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, tmpStr, 0);
code = taos_stmt_execute(stmt);
if ((!pTbNameResult->describeName && (0 != code)) || (pTbNameResult->describeName && (0 == code))) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute describe tables. error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// query the records
printf("[%d] select statement, tbName = %s\n", n, pTbName->queryName);
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
sprintf(tmpStr, "SELECT * FROM %s", pTbName->queryName);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, tmpStr, 0);

TAOS_BIND qparams[2];

int8_t v1 = 5;
int16_t v2 = 15;
qparams[0].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_TINYINT;
qparams[0].buffer_length = sizeof(v1);
qparams[0].buffer = &v1;
qparams[0].length = &qparams[0].buffer_length;
qparams[0].is_null = NULL;

qparams[1].buffer_type = TSDB_DATA_TYPE_SMALLINT;
qparams[1].buffer_length = sizeof(v2);
qparams[1].buffer = &v2;
qparams[1].length = &qparams[1].buffer_length;
qparams[1].is_null = NULL;

taos_stmt_bind_param(stmt, qparams);

code = taos_stmt_execute(stmt);
if ((!pTbNameResult->queryName && (0 != code)) || (pTbNameResult->queryName && (0 == code))) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to execute select statement.error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

result = taos_stmt_use_result(stmt);

TAOS_ROW row;
int rows = 0;
int num_fields = taos_num_fields(result);
TAOS_FIELD* fields = taos_fetch_fields(result);

// fetch the records row by row
while ((row = taos_fetch_row(result))) {
char temp[256] = {0};
rows++;
taos_print_row(temp, row, fields, num_fields);
printf("[%d] row = %s\n", n, temp);
}

taos_free_result(result);
taos_stmt_close(stmt);

// drop table
printf("[%d] drop table, tbName = %s\n", n, pTbName->dropName);
stmt = taos_stmt_init(taos);
sprintf(tmpStr, "drop table %s", pTbName->dropName);
taos_stmt_prepare(stmt, tmpStr, 0);
code = taos_stmt_execute(stmt);
if ((!pTbNameResult->dropName && (0 != code)) || (pTbNameResult->dropName && (0 == code))) {
printf("\033[31m[%d] failed to drop table. error:%s\033[0m\n", n, taos_stmt_errstr(stmt));
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}
taos_stmt_close(stmt);
}

free(t8_len);
free(t16_len);
free(t32_len);
free(t64_len);
free(float_len);
free(double_len);
free(bin_len);
free(blob_len);
free(u8_len);
free(u16_len);
free(u32_len);
free(u64_len);
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
const char* host = "127.0.0.1";
const char* user = "root";
const char* passwd = "taosdata";

taos_options(TSDB_OPTION_TIMEZONE, "GMT-8");
TAOS* taos = taos_connect(host, user, passwd, "", 0);
if (taos == NULL) {
printf("\033[31mfailed to connect to db, reason:%s\033[0m\n", taos_errstr(taos));
exit(1);
}

char* info = taos_get_server_info(taos);
printf("server info: %s\n", info);
info = taos_get_client_info(taos);
printf("client info: %s\n", info);
printf("************ verify prepare *************\n");
verify_prepare(taos);
printf("************ verify prepare2 *************\n");
verify_prepare2(taos);
printf("************ verify prepare3 *************\n");
verify_prepare3(taos);
printf("************ verify prepare4 *************\n");
verify_prepare4(taos);
printf("************ verify end *************\n");
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

view source code

Pattern-free writing example

Mode free write
#include "os.h"
#include "taos.h"
#include "taoserror.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>

bool verbose = false;


void printThreadId(pthread_t id, char* buf)
{
size_t i;
for (i = sizeof(i); i; --i)
sprintf(buf + strlen(buf), "%02x", *(((unsigned char*) &id) + i - 1));
}

static int64_t getTimeInUs() {
struct timeval systemTime;
gettimeofday(&systemTime, NULL);
return (int64_t)systemTime.tv_sec * 1000000L + (int64_t)systemTime.tv_usec;
}

typedef struct {
char** lines;
int numLines;
} SThreadLinesBatch;

typedef struct {
TAOS* taos;
int protocol;
int numBatches;
SThreadLinesBatch *batches;
int64_t costTime;
} SThreadInsertArgs;

static void* insertLines(void* args) {
SThreadInsertArgs* insertArgs = (SThreadInsertArgs*) args;
char tidBuf[32] = {0};
printThreadId(pthread_self(), tidBuf);
for (int i = 0; i < insertArgs->numBatches; ++i) {
SThreadLinesBatch* batch = insertArgs->batches + i;
if (verbose) printf("%s, thread: 0x%s\n", "begin taos_insert_lines", tidBuf);
int64_t begin = getTimeInUs();
//int32_t code = taos_insert_lines(insertArgs->taos, batch->lines, batch->numLines);
TAOS_RES * res = taos_schemaless_insert(insertArgs->taos, batch->lines, batch->numLines, insertArgs->protocol, TSDB_SML_TIMESTAMP_MILLI_SECONDS);
int32_t code = taos_errno(res);
int64_t end = getTimeInUs();
insertArgs->costTime += end - begin;
if (verbose) printf("code: %d, %s. time used:%"PRId64", thread: 0x%s\n", code, tstrerror(code), end - begin, tidBuf);
}
return NULL;
}

int32_t getTelenetTemplate(char* lineTemplate, int templateLen) {
char* sample = "sta%d %lld 44.3 t0=False t1=127i8 t2=32 t3=%di32 t4=9223372036854775807i64 t5=11.12345f32 t6=22.123456789f64 t7=\"hpxzrdiw\" t8=\"ncharTagValue\" t9=127i8";
snprintf(lineTemplate, templateLen, "%s", sample);
return 0;
}

int32_t getLineTemplate(char* lineTemplate, int templateLen, int numFields) {
if (numFields <= 4) {
char* sample = "sta%d,t3=%di32 c3=2147483647i32,c4=9223372036854775807i64,c9=11.12345f32,c10=22.123456789f64 %lld";
snprintf(lineTemplate, templateLen, "%s", sample);
return 0;
}

if (numFields <= 13) {
char* sample = "sta%d,t0=true,t1=127i8,t2=32767i16,t3=%di32,t4=9223372036854775807i64,t9=11.12345f32,t10=22.123456789f64,t11=\"binaryTagValue\",t12=L\"ncharTagValue\" c0=true,c1=127i8,c2=32767i16,c3=2147483647i32,c4=9223372036854775807i64,c5=254u8,c6=32770u16,c7=2147483699u32,c8=9223372036854775899u64,c9=11.12345f32,c10=22.123456789f64,c11=\"binaryValue\",c12=L\"ncharValue\" %lld";
snprintf(lineTemplate, templateLen, "%s", sample);
return 0;
}

char* lineFormatTable = "sta%d,t0=true,t1=127i8,t2=32767i16,t3=%di32 "